Kenneth A. Farley

PDF This 35 page ebook full of photographs and diagrams is the perfect tool to help spark conversation and awaken your friends and family to the mother of all conspiracies. Please make copies, print, distribute, re-upload and do everything you can to get this most important information out to the masses! Download from the link above or read the entire thing online below: If Earth were a giant sphere tilted, wobbling and hurdling through infinite space then truly flat, consistently level surfaces would not exist here. But since Earth is in fact an extended flat plane, this fundamental physical property of fluids finding and remaining level is consistent with experience and common sense. If Earth were truly a spinning ball then many of these rivers would be impossibly flowing uphill, for example the Mississippi in its miles would have to ascend 11 miles before reaching the Gulf of Mexico. Parts of the West African Congo, according to the supposed inclination and movement of the ball-Earth, would be sometimes running uphill and sometimes down. This would also be the case for the Parana, Paraguay and other long rivers. This means along a 6 mile channel of standing water, the Earth would dip 6 feet on either end from the central peak. Every time such experiments have been conducted, however, standing water has proven to be perfectly level.

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If the radioactivity is tightly bonded to by the minerals in the soil then less radioactivity can be absorbed by crops and grass growing in the soil. The glassy trinitite formed by the first atom bomb contains radioisotopes formed by neutron activation and nuclear fission. In addition some natural radioisotopes are present. A recent paper [5] reports the levels of long-lived radioisotopes in the trinitite. The trinitite was formed from feldspar and quartz which were melted by the heat.

Two samples of trinitite were used, the first left-hand-side bars in the graph was taken from between 40 and 65 meters of ground zero while the other sample was taken from further away from the ground zero point.

Efforts to characterize cosmogenic helium mainly focused on olivines within which the 3He c production rate was calibrated using independently (14Cor 40Ar/39Ar) dated volcanic events, e.g. [13,20–22]. Cosmogenic 3He in olivine then successfully allowed dating geological events and estimating erosion rates, e.g. [23–27].

This wide exceeding 1. Toreva blocks are best developed along the eastern side of the river — they exhibit coherently-dipping, patinated tops that can be reconstructed to the gorge walls, but with toes that are truncated or buried by later deposits. Located below these landslide features is a flight of fill and fill-cut terraces spanning 6 levels at elevations of 60, 45, 29, 25, 15 and 7 m above the modern river grade, on average. Terraces at 29 m can be correlated across and along the river axis, whereas others are more locally preserved.

All terraces exhibit well-defined boulder levees and risers constructed from alluvium sourced from upstream, and rounded and sculpted basalt clasts on their treads. Minimum 3He surface exposure ages of multiple samples from each terrace indicate Qt6 was likely abandoned at This incision was likely coincident with toreva block formation and substantial gorge widening, as the toreva blocks and large-scale incohesive landslide deposits predate terrace development.

Landsliding controls the width of the gorge along this stretch, leading to a These landsliding events were likely primarily driven by undercutting of basaltic bedrock along weaker gravel horizons. Gorge narrowing is observed during this time period, with only minor widening accommodated by slumping and incoherent landsliding that post-date terrace treads.

These increasingly rapid incision rates mirror the phenomena seen in other western US river systems since the Pliocene.


It can arguably be interpreted as an allegory for the history of thermochronology in general, in which early, presumably nonsensical or inconsistent ages are later interpreted as geologically meaningful cooling ages in the context of additional kinetic and geologic constraints e. The basic foundation of the technique is production of 4He from alpha decay of U and Th and intermediate daughter isotopes; in some cases Sm may also produce a significant fraction of 4He in a sample.

The decay equation is: The 4He concentration of a sample is a function of both production as above and diffusive loss, and can be represented and modeled as a function of time and temperature e. The properties governing diffusive loss are described by Arrhenius laws for thermally activated volume diffusion, with parameters specific to each mineral species, crystal or diffusion domain size, and, in some cases, composition or radiation dosage e.

This characterization of the radiation is part of a physics-based complement to geological calibration of cosmogenic nuclide production rates, and should lead to better production rate estimates and better correction procedures for exposure dating and erosion-rate measurements.

Full citation Abstract Cosmogenic He-3 was measured in apatite, titanite, and zircon and cosmogenic Ne in quartz at 13 depth intervals in a 2. All three He-3 depth profiles as well as the Ne profile attenuate exponentially with depth, indicating that both of these isotopes are cosmogenic in origin with no significant contribution from other sources. However an additional factor affecting the apparent He-3 production rate in these phases arises from the long stopping range of spalled He-3 and tritium which decays to He Because all three accessory phases have higher mean atomic number than major rock-forming minerals, they will have lower He-3 production rates than their surroundings.

As a consequence the long stopping ranges will cause a net implantation of He-3 and therefore higher apparent production rates than would apply for purely in-situ production. Thus these apparent production rates apply only to the specific grain sizes analyzed. While this effect warrants further study, the grain sizes analyzed here are typical of the accessory phases commonly encountered, so the apparent rates provide an appropriate starting place for surface exposure dating using He-3 in these minerals.

Earth and Planetary Science Topics: Altiplano, production rate, titanite, zircon, apatite, cosmogenic helium Publisher:

Volcanic Carbon Dioxide

Erin Lesley Matchan Abstract The use of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides to investigate surface exposure histories continues to gain popularity due to the applicability of the technique to many different minerals and rock types. However, errors associated with cosmogenic exposure ages are typically either poorly specified or relatively high compared to other more established dating methods. This is dominantly due to large systematic uncertainties.

All samples showed evidence of variable degrees of helium loss and isotope mass fractionation, which compromised the calculation of cosmogenic 3He 3Hec ages. Although minor neon loss was also apparent in most samples, it did not affect calculation of cosmogenic 21Ne 21Nec ages. Overall, olivine separates yielded more consistent cosmogenic 21Ne ages than corresponding clinopyoxene separates extracted from the same samples.

Metallic Helium at Extreme Density Inside Giant Planets and White Dwarf Stars these results demonstrate basic feasibility of the 7 Be/ 10 Be concrete dating technique and suggest areas of further investigation. Background and Research Objectives M. and G. Heusser. “Cosmogenic radionuclides in metals as indicator for sea level.

Full citation Abstract International audienceIn the Himalayas, the late Pleistocene glacier oscillations have produced spectacular glacial landforms. Detailed reconstructions of the chronology and extent of these oscillations are essential to document the sensitivity of the Himalayan glaciers to past and future climatic changes. In this paper, we present a new cosmogenic helium 3 3Hec dating on garnets, that were sampled on moraine blocks and ice-scoured surfaces in a small glaciated valley of the Central Nepal the Mailun valley , and that provided a detailed chronology of Himalayan glacier fluctuations during the Holocene.

Soon after the Younger Dryas, the glacier of theMailun valley underwent a significant retreat around 10 ka. Finally, a last phase of re-advance occurred between 0 and 1 ka. The interpretation of the Equilibrium Line Altitude ELA variation, deduced from this chronology for the Holocene period and carbon 14 14C dating for the Pleistocene period , shows that the early history of theMailun valley deglaciation late Pleistocene is in good agreement with the global paleoclimatic records.

The main extent of the glacier and the major ice volume drop are in phase with the global Last Glacial Maximum 25—17 ka and with the major worldwide temperature increase following the Younger Dryas, respectively, indicating that theMailun glacier was primarily driven by temperature oscillations during the late Pleistocene. In contrast, the glacier chronology during the Holocene suggests that the Mailun glacier was modulated by the variation in annual precipitation, and is asynchronous relative to most glaciers of the Northern Hemisphere.

Environmental radioactivity

See Article History Dating, in geology , determining a chronology or calendar of events in the history of Earth , using to a large degree the evidence of organic evolution in the sedimentary rocks accumulated through geologic time in marine and continental environments. To date past events, processes, formations, and fossil organisms, geologists employ a variety of techniques. These include some that establish a relative chronology in which occurrences can be placed in the correct sequence relative to one another or to some known succession of events.

helium and cosmogenic neon in lunar soil samples (Anufriev, , ). The lunar soil columns were The dating × belongs to the regolith sample residing at a depth of ~72 cm from the Moon’s Variations in the Solar Fluxes of Helium and Protons on the LongTerm Scale G. S. Anufriev.

During photosynthesis, organisms using the C3 pathway show different enrichments compared to those using the C4 pathway , allowing scientists not only to distinguish organic matter from abiotic carbon, but also what type of photosynthetic pathway the organic matter was using. Nitrogen[ edit ] Nitrogen has two stable isotopes, 14N, and 15N.

The ratio between these is measured relative to nitrogen in ambient air. Nitrogen isotope data has also been used to measure the amount of exchange of air between the stratosphere and troposphere using data from the greenhouse gas N2O. Radiogenic isotope tracers are most powerful when used together with other tracers: The more tracers used, the more control on mixing processes. An example of this application is to the evolution of the Earth’s crust and Earth’s mantle through geological time.

Lead is created in the Earth via decay of transuranic elements , primarily uranium and thorium. Lead isotope geochemistry is useful for providing isotopic dates on a variety of materials.

Volcanic Carbon Dioxide

Last Updated May 15, Want a reprint or preprint? Craig, Binary mixing of enriched and undegassed primitive? Farley, Rare gases in Samoan xenoliths, Earth Planet. Craig, Mantle plumes and mantle sources, Science, Poreda, Mantle neon and atmospheric contamination, Earth Planet. Farley, Is “primordial” helium really extraterrestrial?

Cosmogenic isotope analysis involves the measurement of cosmogenic nuclides that have accumulated in the upper few metres of the Earth’s surface as a result of interactions between cosmic rays and target elements. The concentrations of these cosmogenic nuclides can provide quantitative estimates of the timing and rate of geomorphic processes.

Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Principles of isotopic dating All absolute isotopic ages are based on radioactive decay , a process whereby a specific atom or isotope is converted into another specific atom or isotope at a constant and known rate. Most elements exist in different atomic forms that are identical in their chemical properties but differ in the number of neutral particles—i. For a single element, these atoms are called isotopes.

Because isotopes differ in mass, their relative abundance can be determined if the masses are separated in a mass spectrometer see below Use of mass spectrometers. Radioactive decay can be observed in the laboratory by either of two means: The particles given off during the decay process are part of a profound fundamental change in the nucleus.

To compensate for the loss of mass and energy , the radioactive atom undergoes internal transformation and in most cases simply becomes an atom of a different chemical element. In terms of the numbers of atoms present, it is as if apples changed spontaneously into oranges at a fixed and known rate. In this analogy , the apples would represent radioactive, or parent, atoms, while the oranges would represent the atoms formed, the so-called daughters.

Pursuing this analogy further, one would expect that a new basket of apples would have no oranges but that an older one would have many.

Cosmogenic nuclide